China: Following India’s celebration of the anniversary of their victory over Pakistan in the last war between the two nations, Pakistan launched artillery strikes along the line of control between the two nations. Indian authorities were so concerned with the escalation in force that 50 engineers from China, who were sent to work on a joint dam project, were evacuated from the area. China has been closely monitoring the tension between India and Pakistan this year due to their interest in a number of joint projects with India. A disruption to Chinese interests in the region will not be received well by Chinese authorities. If disruptions to the dam project continue, China will likely feel the need to involve themselves in the tensions. This increases the probability of cyber-espionage related activities being carried out against Pakistani government officials and units near Kashmir. As with the increased tension earlier this year, the increase in tension poses a risk to private organizations within India and Pakistan as well. If clashes along the border continue between India and Pakistan, India may feel the need to increase forces along the border which can lead to disruptions to business operations in regions bordering Pakistan as infrastructure is prioritized for military and government use.
Border regions are also at increased risk for cyber-attacks as pro-Pakistani hackers, including sophisticated groups like the Turkish Ayyildiz Tim who attacked a number of private organizations in India during the last increase in tension, are likely to begin to target entities within India along the border.